Skill Development Course on Installation Engineering – SDH & DWDMZCOER
Skill Development Course on Installation Engineering – SDH & DWDM was a 12 days course by BSNL’s BRBRAITT (Bharat Ratna Bhimrao Ambedkar Institute of Telecom Training).
Total 25 students were accompanied by 2 staff members, Prof. Priyanka Balu Bhor and Prof. Roopesh R. Patil.
- The first day of training program 5th December 2016.
The Course started on a very good note where in the students and the faculty members were welcomed in a seminar hall by the DGM, GM and other authorities of BSNL, BRBRITT.
Need of the skill development program
As we enter the twenty-first century, it goes without saying that information services have permeated society and commerce. Information, while still a tool, has become a commodity in itself. Yet the universal acceptance and ubiquitous adoption of information technology systems has strained the backbones on which they were built. High demand—coupled with high usage rates, a deregulated telecommunications environment, and high availability requirements—is rapidly depleting the capacities of fibers that, when installed 10 years ago, were expected to suffice for the foreseeable future.
The explosion in demand for network bandwidth is largely due to the growth in data traffic, specifically Internet Protocol (IP). Leading service providers report bandwidths doubling on their backbones about every six to nine months. This is largely in response to the 300 percent growth per year in Internet traffic, while traditional voice traffic grows at a compound annual rate of only about 13 percent.
Options for Increasing Carrier Bandwidth Faced with the challenge of dramatically increasing capacity while constraining costs, carriers have two options: Install new fiber or increase the effective bandwidth of existing fiber. Laying new fiber is the traditional means used by carriers to expand their networks. Deploying new fiber, however, is a costly proposition. It is estimated at about $70,000 per mile, most of which is the cost of permits and construction rather than the fiber itself. Laying new fiber may make sense only when it is desirable to expand the embedded base. Increasing the effective capacity of existing fiber can be accomplished in two ways:
- Increase the bit rate of existing systems.
- Increase the number of wavelengths on a fiber.
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) was invented as a way of maximizing the amount of voice traffic that could be carried over a medium. In the telephone network before multiplexing was invented, each telephone call required its own physical link. This proved to be an expensive and unscalable solution. Using multiplexing, more than one telephone call could be put on a single link. TDM can be explained by an analogy to highway traffic. To transport all the traffic from four tributaries to another city, you can send all the traffic on one lane, providing the feeding tributaries are fairly serviced and the traffic is synchronized. So, if each of the four feeds puts a car onto the trunk highway every four seconds, then the trunk highway would get a car at the rate of one each second. As long as the speed of all the cars is synchronized, there would be no collision. At the destination the cars can be taken off the highway and fed to the local tributaries by the same synchronous mechanism, in reverse.
WDM increases the carrying capacity of the physical medium (fiber) using a completely different method from TDM. WDM assigns incoming optical signals to specific frequencies of light (wavelengths, or lambdas) within a certain frequency band. This multiplexing closely resembles the way radio stations broadcast on different wavelengths without interfering with each other .Because each channel is transmitted at a different frequency, we can select from them using a tuner. Another way to think about WDM is that each channel is a different color of light; several channels then make up a “rainbow.”